Thanks to the results obtained during project realization the following publications were created, the list of which is presented below.
1. Szewczyk D., Ślefarski R., Jankowski R.: Analysis of the combustion process of syngas fuels containing high hydrocarbons and nitrogen compounds in Zonal Volumetric Combustion technology,;
The paper presents the results of the research on the combustion process of syngas fuels containing high hydrocarbons and nitrogen compounds in the Zonal Volumetric Combustion (ZVC) technology. During the experiments the effectiveness of ZVC for syngas fuels with benzene and pyridine (as representatives of tar components and fuel bound nitrogen) as well as ammonia was studied. It has been shown that the impact of high hydrocarbons and a type of nitrogen bound compounds in the fuel on the overall emission of NOX, CO and CXHY in the ZVC technology is negligible for syngas with a low concentration of Ni species. It becomes noticeable for high Ni content fuels especially in the case of NOX emission. In the ZVC technology, the amount of air in the reduction zone has a dominant impact on NOx emission. The highest emission of NOX was observed for fuels with pyridine and benzene for the case where in the reducing zone oxygen was at the highest examined level. The lowest value of the conversion factor of Ni species into NOX was received for high calorific syngas. Even for a high content of CXHY in the fuel, soot and CO were not observed in flue gases.
2. Ślefarski R., Szewczyk D., Jankowski R., Gołębiewski M.: Experimental study of combustion process of gaseous fuels containing nitrogen compounds in new, low-emission Zonal Volumetric Combustion technology,;
The paper presents result of experimental investigations of the innovative Zonal Volumetric Combustion technology (ZVC), applying several methods for the reduction of toxic compounds (mainly NOX, CO and CXHY) produced during the high combustion process of gaseous fuels in industrial combustion systems. In the ZVC technology, the volumetric combustion process of the fuel take place in two zone: the reducing zone and oxidizing zone. To minimise the emission of NOX, mainly created by thermal mechanism, the internal recirculation between the zones was minimised. It was possible by applied in ZVC technology a new approach to the appropriate design of combustion chamber shape and nozzle configuration for multi stages of fuel and air injection. During experimental tests a few fuels were investigated, also those of low calorific value like syngas, biogas and waste gas of a different chemical composition. The low heating value for investigated fuel were in the range from 35.8 MJ/m3 (for methane) up to 3.2 MJ/m3 (for syngas). The firing power rate during experiments was kept constant and equals 100 kW. The experimental studies included the influence of nitrogenous compounds bounded in the fuel like (NH3, pyridine) on the total emission of NOx as well as the high hydrocarbons (benzene) influence on the CO, CXHY and soot formation. It has been shown that the best conversion factor (CF), which describes the amount of NOX produced relative to the amount of nitrogen compounds in the fuel, was obtained for the case where in the reducing zone oxygen was kept at a very low level. The value of CF was decreasing with an increasing of amount of nitrogenous compounds in investigated fuels. It was also observed that for this same amount of nitrogen bounded in the fuel, but represented by different chemical compounds, the NOX emission is varying (receives a higher value for the pyridine than NH3). Even for test with small amount of oxygen in the reducing zone of combustion chamber (value of oxygen which corresponds to the air excess ratio equal 0.1) the measured emission of CO, CXHY was below 5 ppm. The soot particles were not observed for all investigated fuels and different operating parameters.
The project financially supported by the National Centre for Research and Development and European Union under the European Regional Development Fund